# Using PHP objects from C# in a type-safe way

When you want to call PHP scripts from mainstream .NET languages, like C# you can follow two different ways. First you can use the pure mode as I demonstrated in one of the earlier articles on PHP application called Texy! [1]. This approach can be used only for some specific applications, because pure mode has several restrictions - the two most important restrictions are that no global code or inclusions are allowed (you have to specify all source files during the compilation), but thanks to this restrictions Phalanger is able to produce classes that are compatible with .NET and can be called from C#. Second option is to create object dynamically by its name and perform all method invocations by name too. This approach can be used with any PHP scripts, but it isn't very convenient. In this article we present new features in the Phalanger beta 4 which extend the second approach and make it possible to use objects from any PHP script in C# using type-safe way.

## Duck typing introduction

class SampleObj {
public $Message = "Hello world!"; function Add($a, $b) { return$a + $b; } }  To compile this fairly simple PHP code using Phalanger, use either Visual Studio or the following simple command: phpc /target:dll /out:PhpClassLib.dll main.php  Now, let's get to the interesting part - how to create instance of SampleObj from C# and how to read it's member field Message or call the Add function. The new technique in Phalanger is based on principle called duck typing (kind of structural typing system), which says that object is compatible with an interface if it has all methods and properties required by the interface, regardless whether the object actually implements the interface or not. This is very interesting principle that contrasts with the approach in languages like C# or Java, where you can't cast object to an interface if the object doesn't implement the interface even though the object may have all the methods required by the interface and so accessing to the object through this interface couldn't harm encapsulation of the objects in any way. From the description you could have guessed that we will first declare C# interface which will correspond to the SampleObj and later we will create instance of this object and cast it to the declared interface using duck typing type coercion to get an view of the object allowing us to easily call are required PHP methods and access PHP fields: [DuckType] public interface ISampleObj { string Message { get; set; } int Add(int i1, int i2); }  First we need to load the PHP library in the C# application: // Get current PHP script context, set output to the console ScriptContext ctx = ScriptContext.CurrentContext; ctx.Output = Console.Out; // Load the PhpClassLib library and include the "main.php" source Type library_representative = typeof(PhpClassLib); ctx.IncludeScript("main.php", library_representative);  Now we need to get an instance of the SampleObj class and coerce it to the C# ISampleObj interface: // Create instance of object 'SampleObj' declared in PHP ISampleObj so = ctx.NewObject<ISampleObj>("SampleObj"); // Set and then read the 'Message' property so.Message = "Hello from C# (via PHP)!"; Console.WriteLine(so.Message); // Call add method with integers as an arguments int r1 = so.Add(24, 18); Console.WriteLine("Math: 24 + 18 = {0}", r1);  As you can see in this example, once you defined the interface, calling PHP objects is amazingly simple! You use the interface as a type parameter of the NewObject method and it behind the scene creates an object that implements it, so you can use it for calling PHP member functions of the object. You have to be careful when declaring the interface, because if you declared a method that doesn't exist in the PHP object you will get and runtime error (following the same pattern as if you called member function that doesn't exist from PHP), but once the interface is declared you get all the comfort including Visual Studio IntelliSense. ## More Duck Typing Samples In the previous sample we restricted the Add function to parameters of type int, but this is of course not restriction in the PHP code, because the Add function can be called with floating point numbers as a parameter and it will add them and return result as a floating point number. It isn't difficult to get the same functionality in C#, because you can include more overloaded versions of the method in the interface: [DuckType] public interface ISampleObj { string Message { get; set; } int Add(int i1, int i2); double Add(double d1, double d2); }  Another interesting situation is when the PHP object returns another PHP object as a result of the method, but as you would expect - everything you need to support this scenario is to add another interface, annotate it with the DuckType attribute and use it as a return type of the method. In this situation you can see why are interfaces need to be annotated using the attribute, because when returning object from a method, Phalanger needs to decide whether object should be treated as an direct implementation of the interface (for example when you return some .NET type) or as a PHP object that should be dynamically casted to the interface using duck typing. To make the following sample even more interesting, we will use one more dynamic PHP feature - the magic functions __call and __get. These two functions are invoked when script calls a member function or a member field that isn't explicitly declared. class MagicSample { function __call($name, $args) { echo "Calling unknown function '$name' with ".count($args)." arguments.\n"; } function __get($name) {
}
}

class SampleObj {
function NewMagic() {
return new MagicSample;
}
}


Typically, you use the magic functions, because you want to make the object flexible and it is easier to implement some functionality using these magic functions, but in the C# code you'll typically know the name of the function you want to call (we'll show more real-world example later). If you want to call function SomeMethod and read the field SomeProp from C#, you will need to define interfaces as follows:

[DuckType]
public interface ISampleObj {
ISecondSample NewMagic();
}

[DuckType]
public interface IMagicSample {
void SomeMethod(int p1, int p2, int p3);
string SomeProp { get; }
}


Using this two objects gives the same results you would expect when using them directly from PHP:

// Create instance of object 'SampleObj' declared in PHP
ISampleObj so = ctx.NewObject<ISampleObj>("SampleObj");

// Returning PHP objects from PHP
IMagicSample mag = so.NewMagic();

// Call unknown method
mag.SomeMethod(1, 2, 3);

Console.WriteLine(mag.SomeProp);


Executing this program prints:

Calling unknown function 'SomeMethod' with 3 arguments.


## Working with XML using Duck Typing

Now, let's look at one slightly more complicated sample. In this example we will use the PHP SimpleXML extension for working with RSS feeds. When opening XML document using SimpleXML the elements and attributes can be accessed directly as a member fields, so to make it possible to access these fields from C# we will need to define a few interfaces first (the following sample includes only a few of all the required interfaces, the complete sample is attached and you can download it):

[DuckType]
}

[DuckType]
string title { get; }

[DuckName("item")]
}

[DuckType]
string title { get; }
}


This sample contains two new features that were not mentioned earlier - first we used DuckName attribute to rename field, which was called item in the original PHP object, but we wanted to expose it as a items in the C# code. Second thing is the usage of the IDuckEnumerable interface, which is very useful when it is possible to iterate over the object using PHP foreach statement. By using IDuckEnumerable, you'll get exactly the same functionality in C# as well! In this example we used IDuckEnumerable<IRssItemNode>, where IRssItemNode is another interface marked using DuckType, which means that when iterating over the elements, every element will be coerced to the interface representing the item in RSS document. The following sample uses interfaces declared above to read sample RSS feed:

IRssXml xml = ctx.Call<IRssXml>("simplexml_load_file",

// Iterate over items in the channel node:
Console.WriteLine(" - {0}", item.title);
}


## Conclusion

Duck typing is a very powerful approach for the interoperability between PHP (and in general any dynamic languages running on .NET Framework) and statically typed languages that require all methods and types to be known during the compilation. The need to declare the interface that defines the structure of the PHP object is of course not as fast as using the object directly from PHP, but thanks to the Visual Studio it is very easy (you can just type the name of the method and let IDE to generate the method for you). Also thanks to this technique you can easily create .NET wrappers for any PHP library and use it from your .NET application or even distribute it with your PHP library, because using it from .NET will be very convenient and you can also use C# XML comments to generate technical documentation for the exported interfaces.

Now we only need to find a way how to generate these interfaces automatically from the PHP source code :-), hmm...