# F# Math (III.) - Defining custom numeric types

In this article, we define an F# numeric type for calculating in the modular arithmetic (also called clock arithmetic) [1]. Modular arithmetic is used for calculations where we want to keep a value within a specified range by counting in cycles. For example, a maximal value on clock is 12 hours. When we add 11 hours and 3 hours, the value overflows and the result is 2 hours. Aside from clocks, this numeric system is also essential in cryptography or, for example, in music.

This tutorial shows several techniques that are essential when defining any new numeric type in F#. Most importantly, you’ll learn how to:

- Define a numeric type with overloaded operators
- Define a numeric literal for constructing numbers of our new type
- Enable calculating with our type in F# lists and matrices
- Hide implementation details of a numeric type

We define type `IntegerZ5`

that implements modular arithmetic with modulus 5, meaning that valid values are in the range
from 0 to 4 and we equip the type with operations such as addition and multiplication. When an operation produces a value that would
be outside of the range, we adjust it by adding or subtracting the modulus (in our case 5). Here are some examples of calculations
that we’ll be able to write:

2 + 1 = 3 (mod 5) 4 * 2 = 3 (mod 5) List.sum [ 0; 1; 2; 3 ] = 1 (mod 5)

In the first case, we can perform the operation without any adjustments. In the second case, we multiply 4 by 2 and get 8 as the
result, which is out of the required range. To correct it, we calculate the remainder after a division by 5 (written as `8 % 5`

in F#),
which gives us 3. Finally, the last example shows that we’d also like to be able to use our type with lists. If we add values 0, 1, 2
and 3, we get 6 which is adjusted to 1.

This article is a part of a series that covers some F# and F# PowerPack features for numerical computing. Other articles in this series discuss matrices, defining custom numeric types and writing generic code. For links to other parts, see F# Math - Overview of F# PowerPack.

## Defining the IntegerZ5 type

We’ll create an F# library containing our numeric type, so that it can be easily used from multiple applications. The approach we’ll use will follow the usual F# best practices for designing this kind of libraries, so you should follow similar steps when creating any other numeric type.

To start, we create a new **F# Library** project in Visual Studio. Once the project is created, remove the existing files
and add a new file named `IntegerZ5.fs`

. This file will contain the implementation of our type. We start by adding a
type `IntegerZ5`

into a namespace `FSharp.Numeric`

:

1: namespace FSharp.Numerics 2: 3: type IntegerZ5 = 4: | Z5 of int 5: member z.ToInt32() = 6: let (Z5 n) = z in n 7: override z.ToString() = 8: sprintf "%d (mod 5)" (z.ToInt32()) 9: 10: static member Create(n) = 11: let z5 = n % 5 12: Z5(max ((z5 + 5) % 5) z5)

The type is implemented as a discriminated union with a single case labeled `Z5`

. The case carries a value of type `int`

, but
the operations that we’ll provide for creating and calculating with `IntegerZ5`

will guarantee that the actual value will be
within the required range (0 to 4, inclusively). The fact that we use single-case discriminated union is merely an implementation
detail that allows us to implement operations with the type in a convenient way, but we'll later see how to hide this implementation detail.

The first two members convert an `IntegerZ5`

value to other types. To get an integer, we simply return the underlying value. When
formatting the value as a string, we append the "(mod 5)" string after the number, which is the usual way of denoting that the number
is in the modular arithmetic.

The last static members provide ways for constructing `IntegerZ5`

values. It takes an arbitrary integer as an argument and
adjusts it, so that it is within the specified range. This is done by calculating the remainder of a division by 5 and adding 5 in case
the result is negative (for example, `-13 % 5`

produces -3, and the result of `max -3 2`

will give us 2).

So far, we created a simple type that can be created and printed, but that’s all we can do with it so far. In the next section, we’ll equip our type with basic operators for calculating with it. As we’ll see, that’s all we need to use the type with some standard F# library functions.

## Creating and calculating with IntegerZ5

Next, let's take the `IntegerZ5`

type and add operators for multiplying, adding and subtracting values of this type.
We’ll also add two members that provide easy access to frequently used constants 0 and 1 and we’ll provide a simple function for
constructing values of this type. The following listing adds several static members to the type:

1: type IntegerZ5 = 2: (Omitted) 3: static member (+) (Z5 a, Z5 b) = IntegerZ5.Create(a + b) 4: static member (-) (Z5 a, Z5 b) = IntegerZ5.Create(a - b) 5: static member (*) (Z5 a, Z5 b) = IntegerZ5.Create(a * b) 6: static member Zero = Z5 0 7: static member One = Z5 1

The three overloaded operators are implemented as static members with a special name. They take two parameters of type
`IntegerZ5`

and we use pattern matching (using the discriminated union case label `Z5`

) to immediately
extract the actual integer used to represent the number. After performing the numerical operation on integers, the result may be
out of the specified range, so we construct the result using the `Create`

member, which adjusts the integer. The `Zero`

and `One`

members simply construct value using the `Z5`

union case, because 0 and 1 are always valid
values (so there is no need for calling the `Create`

member).

Most of the standard F# numeric types can be created from other numeric types by calling a conversion function of the same
name as the name of the type. For example `float 42`

returns a floating point number 42.0 and `byte 42.0`

converts a
floating point number to a byte value `42uy`

.

Numeric type conversion functions are written in a way so that they work with any numeric type that supports the
conversion in some way. This means that we can write `byte 42`

as well as `byte 42.0`

, but not for example
`byte (new System.Random())`

. This behavior is achieved using static member constraints, which allow the function to
specify that the argument needs to be of any type that provides a specific method.

To write a conversion function for `IntegerZ5`

type, we could either use static member constraints explicitly, or
we can use some existing function (such as `int`

) and let the F# type inference deduce the constraints automatically.
The following listing uses the second approach:

1: [<AutoOpen>] 2: module IntegerZ5TopLevelOperations = 3: let inline z5 a = IntegerZ5.Create(int a)

The function `z5`

needs to be marked as `inline`

, which allows us to use static member constraints. Inside
the body, we first convert the argument to an integer using the int function and then construct `IntegerZ5`

from the returned
integer. The static member constraints are propagated automatically and we’ll look at them in more details later.

Since functions cannot be declared inside a namespace, we need to enclose our function in a module. We want to make it available automatically
whenever the user of our library opens the `FSharp.Numerics`

namespace, which can be done by adding the `AutoOpen`

attribute to the module declaration.

## Testing numeric type interactively

As a next step, we’ll use F# interactive to verify that the code we wrote so far works as expected. At this point, we didn't even build the library. We just wrote some F# source code and want to test the source code without building the library. We'll use interactive tests written in an F# script file. Once you build the library, it is quite easy to turn those into proper unit tests using NUnit, xUnit or other testing frameworks.

To test the type we implemented at the source code level, we first add a new F# Script File (Add -> New Item... -> F# Script File)
named `Tests.fsx`

. In this file, we load the content of `IntegerZ5.fs`

and register a printer to specify how the
F# Interactive tool should output values of our type:

1: #load "IntegerZ5.fs" 2: open FSharp.Numerics 3: 4: fsi.AddPrinter(fun (z:IntegerZ5) -> z.ToString())

The first command loads an F# source code and evaluates it in the F# Interactive tool. Next, we open the namespace `FSharp.Numerics`

,
which contains our type. Finally, we call the `AddPrinter`

member of the global `fsi`

value. The parameter is a
lambda function that takes value of our `IntegerZ5`

type and returns a string by simply calling the `ToString`

member we
provided. Note that we need to add the type annotation, because `AddPrinter`

is a generic member. The type annotation
allows it to determine a type for which we’re specifying the printer.

Now, we can test our function for creating `IntegerZ5`

values and operators for working with them:

1: let a = z5 3.0 2: let b = z5 7 3: val a : IntegerZ5 = "3 (mod 5)" 4: val b : IntegerZ5 = "2 (mod 5)" 5: 6: a * b; 7: val it : IntegerZ5 = "1 (mod 5)" 8: a + b 9: val it : IntegerZ5 = "0 (mod 5)"

As we can see, when the F# Interactive outputs a value of our type, it uses the printer we specified. The output such as
“3 (mod 5)” makes it clear that the value is calculated in modulus arithmetic of base 5. The first two `let`

bindings show
that the `z5`

function works with any numeric types (including floating point numbers and integers) and that it
automatically calculates the modulus of the number. The last two examples show that overloaded operators we provided also
follow the rules of modulus arithmetic.

So far, we’ve been using the operators directly. The way we wrote the `IntegerZ5`

type also allows us to use it
with some functions from the F# core libraries. For example, if we create a list of `IntegerZ5`

values, we can sum
the list using the overloaded operators we provided simply like this:

1: List.sum [ z5 0; z5 1; z5 2; z5 3; z5 4 ] 2: val it : IntegerZ5 = "0 (mod 5)"

How does the `List.sum`

function know that it needs to use the overloaded operator of `IntegerZ5`

type?
The function is implemented using *static member constraints* and requires that the type of the elements provides a + operator and
also a `Zero`

member. The compiler knows that our type provides the required members, so it allows us to use `List.sum`

for our type.
We'll look at implementing functions like this in the next article of the series.

When creating values of `IntegerZ5`

in this step, we used the `z5`

conversion function. Alternatively, we
could use the `IntegerZ5.Create`

member, but that leads to a more heavyweight notation. In the next step, we’ll
see how to use numeric literals to make the syntax more convenient.

## Providing numeric literals for IntegerZ5

Values of built-in numeric types such as `int64`

, `byte`

or `float32`

can be created using
special numeric literals `-30L`

, `127uy`

and `42.0f`

. The F# makes it possible to provide
a similar literal for our own numeric types. There are several limitations to what kind of literals we can define. Briefly,
the literal must end with one of characters that are reserved for this purpose by the F# language. Additionally, the literal
must consist only of numeric symbols (so for example `12#3Z`

isn’t allowed).

To define a literal, we need to write a module with a special name. Inside the module, we implement several functions that are used automatically in the F# compiler whenever a literal is used:

1: module NumericLiteralZ = 2: let FromZero () = Z5 0 3: let FromOne () = Z5 1 4: let FromInt32 a = IntegerZ5.Create(a%5) 5: let FromInt64 a = IntegerZ5.Create(int(a%5L))

The name of the module consists of the special name `NumericLiteral`

followed by a symbol `Z`

which we’ll use for writing
our literals. This means that we’ll be able to write literals such as `0Z`

, `1Z`

and `42Z`

. The module may provide
several functions to enable several sizes of literals.

If we included only the first two functions (`FromZero`

and `FromOne`

) we would be able to write only `0Z`

and `1Z`

.
The next two functions enable writing literals for other numbers that fit into integer values. To support numeric literals that are larger than `int64`

,
we could also provide the `FromString`

method. Note that this wouldn’t allow writing literals consisting of non-numeric characters. The main use
of this method is to enable arbitrarily sized integer values, so we don’t provide it in the above example.

The following listing shows a few examples of using our newly defined numeric literals:

1: 6Z 2: val it : IntegerZ5 = "1 (mod 5)" 3: 3Z * (4Z + 2Z) 4: val it : IntegerZ5 = "3 (mod 5)"

As we can see, numeric literals make working with custom numeric data types easier. Since our numeric type is almost finished now, we’ll look at compiling it into a redistributable library in the next step.

## Adding F# Signature file

Signature files can be added to a project to specify which of the members and values from an implementation file
(such as `IntegerZ5.fs`

) should be publicly exported by the compiled library. A signature file lists members
and functions together with their type signatures, which also makes it a useful source of information about our library.

The name of the file should be the same as the name of the implementation file, but it should have the fsi extension. In our case,
we’ll add a file named `IntegerZ5.fsi`

. The file needs to be passed to the compiler before the implementation file.
In Visual Studio, this means that you need to move the file before the implementation file in the Solution Explorer. This can be
done by right-clicking on the file and selecting the “Move Up” command.

The listing below shows the source code of the signature file. Most of the type signatures that you can see in the listing can be inferred automatically by the F# compiler. An easy way of extracting the first version of F# signature file from the source code is selecting the entire content of the implementation file and evaluating it interactively. The F# Interactive prints all the inferred type signatures and we can easily copy them to the signature file.

Nevertheless, we’ll need to make one notable addition to the generated type signature. The listing also shows the type signature
of the `z5`

function, which is quite interesting:

1: namespace FSharp.Numerics 2: 3: [<Sealed>] 4: type IntegerZ5 = 5: member ToInt32 : unit -> int 6: override ToString : unit -> string 7: static member Create : int -> IntegerZ5 8: static member One : IntegerZ5 9: static member Zero : IntegerZ5 10: static member ( + ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5 11: static member ( * ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5 12: static member ( - ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5 13: 14: module NumericLiteralZ = 15: val FromZero : unit -> IntegerZ5 16: val FromOne : unit -> IntegerZ5 17: val FromInt32 : int -> IntegerZ5 18: val FromInt64 : int64 -> IntegerZ5 19: 20: module IntegerZ5TopLevelOperations = 21: val inline z5 : ^a -> IntegerZ5 when 22: ^a : (static member op_Explicit : ^a -> int)

The signature file starts with a namespace declaration, which is the same as the declaration in the implementation file. Next, it
contains a single type signature and two module signatures. Note that the `IntegerZ5`

type is marked with the `Sealed`

attribute. This is required, because the signature file needs to reveal what kind of file we are declaring. For F# types such as records
and discriminated unions, we use `Sealed`

meaning that the type is not extensible.

Type signatures of the members of our numeric type as well as functions in the `NumericLiteralZ`

module are mostly straightforward.
The function `z5`

in the last module is far more interesting. As noted earlier, the function is implemented so that it works on
any argument that can be converted into an integer. In practice, this means that the type of the argument needs to provide a static member named
`op_Explicit`

taking the type of the argument and returning integer.

Determining whether a type of the argument has a certain method cannot be expressed in .NET generics, so we use F# specific feature named
static member constraints. This works only for so-called hat types (such as `^a`

). Hat types are inlined during the compilation,
so the function also needs to be marked as `inline`

.

Finally, it is also worth noting that if we added `op_Explicit`

member to our `IntegerZ5`

type, it would be possible to
use our type as parameter of the `int`

function (so we could write for example `int 3Z`

).

## Supporting matrices using global associations

Our numeric type can be used with some standard library functions such as `List.sum`

, because they implement certain members that are
required by static member constraints of `List.sum`

. However, this approach doesn't work with complex data types such as generic matrices.
If we try to write any matrix computation with our type, it will not work, because generic Matrix type isn’t automatically able to use
the overloaded operators and members we provided.

In order to support matrices we need to provide a so-called numeric association. This is a simple interface containing numeric operations that can be performed on our type. The interface needs to be registered in a global table maintained by the F# PowerPack library, so that any F# code can get the interface from the table and use it for performing operations with our type.

The F# PowerPack library contains a hierarchy of interfaces that represent various sets of numeric operations that we may be able to
provide. We’ll implement the most basic interface called `INumeric<'T>`

and represent a simple numeric type. Other
interfaces available are for example `IIntegral<'T>`

, which provides operations such as `DivRem`

(division with a remainder)
or `IFloating<'T>`

, which additionally includes floating point operations such as `Sqrt`

.

The simplest way to implement the interface is to use object expressions and create a singleton value implementing it. We also need to provide
an operation that registers the instance in the `GlobalAssociations`

table:

1: module IntegerZ5Associations = 2: let IntegerZ5Numerics = 3: { new INumeric<IntegerZ5> with 4: member z.Zero = IntegerZ5.Zero 5: member z.One = IntegerZ5.One 6: member z.Add(a,b) = a + b 7: member z.Subtract(a,b) = a - b 8: member z.Multiply(a,b) = a * b 9: member z.Equals(Z5 a, Z5 b) = (a = b) 10: member z.Compare(Z5 a, Z5 b) = compare a b 11: member z.Negate(a) = 0Z - a 12: member z.Abs(a) = a 13: member z.Sign(Z5 a) = Math.Sign(a) 14: member z.ToString(Z5 n,fmt,fmtprovider) = 15: n.ToString(fmt,fmtprovider) + " (mod 5)" 16: member z.Parse(s,numstyle,fmtprovider) = 17: z5 (System.Int32.Parse(s,numstyle,fmtprovider)) } 18: 19: let Init() = 20: GlobalAssociations.RegisterNumericAssociation IntegerZ5Numerics

Most of the operations can be implemented directly in terms of operators that we already provided in the `IntegerZ5`

type, so the purpose of the
`INumeric<'T>`

interface is simply to make these operations accessible indirectly. Some other operations such as `Compare`

,
`Sign`

or `ToString`

can be implemented using the underlying integer (which we can extract by writing the pattern
`Z5`

a in place of parameter).

The module also provides `Init`

function, which registers our instance in the `GlobalAssociations`

table. Ideally,
the registration would be done automatically when the `IntegerZ5`

type is used for the first time, but this is unfortunately
not easy to achieve. Instead, we'll write a function that needs to be called explicitly (to make this automatic, you could move the code
to a static constructor of the `IntegerZ5`

type).

To make the module visible in the compiled library, we also need to include its type signature in the F# Signature file that we added earlier. This can be done by adding the code from the following listing:

1: module IntegerZ5Associations = 2: val IntegerZ5Numerics : INumeric<IntegerZ5> 3: val Init : unit -> unit

Now that our library is complete, we can compile and use the created assembly in other F# projects. In this tutorial, we didn’t aim to create a C# compatible type, however, the type would be also usable from C# (most importantly, all the overloaded operators and members of the type would work in C#).

As a final step, we’ll look how to load the compiled library in F# interactive and use our type to do a simple computation
using generic `Matrix`

type:

1: #r "FSharp.PowerPack.dll" 2: #r "bin\Debug\FSharp.Numerics.dll" 3: 4: open FSharp.Numerics 5: module MatrixG = Matrix.Generic 6: 7: IntegerZ5Associations.Init() 8: 9: let ys = MatrixG.init 5 5 (fun a b -> (z5 a)) 10: let xs = MatrixG.init 5 5 (fun a b -> (z5 b)) 11: val ys : Matrix<IntegerZ5> = (...) 12: val xs : Matrix<IntegerZ5> = (...) 13: 14: xs .* ys 15: val it : Matrix<IntegerZ5> = 16: matrix [[0 (mod 5); 0 (mod 5); 0 (mod 5); 0 (mod 5); 0 (mod 5)] 17: [0 (mod 5); 1 (mod 5); 2 (mod 5); 3 (mod 5); 4 (mod 5)] 18: [0 (mod 5); 2 (mod 5); 4 (mod 5); 1 (mod 5); 3 (mod 5)] 19: [0 (mod 5); 3 (mod 5); 1 (mod 5); 4 (mod 5); 2 (mod 5)] 20: [0 (mod 5); 4 (mod 5); 3 (mod 5); 2 (mod 5); 1 (mod 5)]]

After referencing F# PowerPack and our library, we open the namespace `FSharp.Numerics`

, which contains our type and define a
module alias `MatrixG`

to simplify access to generic `Matrix`

type. Next we call the `Init`

function
to register the global numeric associations for our type.

Finally, we construct two matrices of the size `5x5`

– the first one contains increasing values of the `IntegerZ5`

type along
the first dimension and the values in the second matrix increase along the second dimension. We use point-wise multiplication of these two
matrices to produce a simple table that shows results of multiplying all possible combinations of `IntegerZ5`

values.

## Summary

In this article, we looked at implementing a custom numeric type. Although you probably won't need to implement a custom
numeric type very often, it may be useful. Aside from modular arithmetic, you may want to implement a type that represents
quadruples of values (to represent colors) or a type to represent 3D vectors. The F# PowerPack library uses the techniques
described in this article to implement `BigRational`

and `complex`

types that I introduced in
an earlier article.

When implementing a numeric type, there is quite a few features that you may want to support. In this article, we
defined overloaded operators and members that are required by static member constraints, so that we could use
functions like `List.sum`

. Then we also defined numeric literals to be able to write `1Z`

instead of `z5 1`

. Finally, we implemented the `INumeric<'T>`

interface, which makes
it possible to use our type with generic matrices from F# PowerPack, which I covered in the
previous article of the series.

## References & Links

- [1] Modular arithmetic - Wikipedia.org
- [2] F# PowerPack (source code and binary packages) - CodePlex
- [3] Numeric Computing - Real World Functional Programming on MSDN
- [4] Numerical Libraries for F# and .NET - Real World Functional Programming on MSDN

| Z5 of int

with

member ToInt32 : unit -> int

override ToString : unit -> string

static member Create : n:int -> IntegerZ5

end

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.Version1.IntegerZ5

type: IntegerZ5

implements: System.IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

val int : 'T -> int (requires member op_Explicit)

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.int

--------------------

type int = int32

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

--------------------

type int<'Measure> = int

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int<_>

type: int<'Measure>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IComparable<int<'Measure>>

implements: System.IEquatable<int<'Measure>>

inherits: System.ValueType

type: IntegerZ5

implements: System.IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.Version1.IntegerZ5.ToInt32

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.Version1.IntegerZ5.ToString

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.ExtraTopLevelOperators.sprintf

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.Version1.IntegerZ5.Create

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.max

| Z5 of int

with

member ToInt32 : unit -> int

override ToString : unit -> string

static member Create : n:int -> IntegerZ5

static member One : IntegerZ5

static member Zero : IntegerZ5

static member ( + ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( * ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( - ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

end

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5

type: IntegerZ5

implements: System.IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

member z.ToInt32() =

let (Z5 n) = z in n

override z.ToString() =

sprintf "%d (mod 5)" (z.ToInt32())

static member Create(n) =

let z5 = n % 5

Z5(max ((z5 + 5) % 5) z5)

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.Zero

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.One

type AutoOpenAttribute =

class

inherit System.Attribute

new : unit -> AutoOpenAttribute

new : path:string -> AutoOpenAttribute

member Path : string

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.AutoOpenAttribute

type: AutoOpenAttribute

implements: System.Runtime.InteropServices._Attribute

inherits: System.Attribute

--------------------

new : unit -> AutoOpenAttribute

--------------------

new : path:string -> AutoOpenAttribute

from FSharp.Numerics

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5TopLevelOperations.z5

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Compiler.Interactive.Settings.fsi

Full name: Script.Testing.a

type: IntegerZ5

implements: System.IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

Full name: Script.Testing.b

type: IntegerZ5

implements: System.IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

module List

from Microsoft.FSharp.Collections

--------------------

type List<'T> =

| ( [] )

| ( :: ) of 'T * 'T list

with

interface System.Collections.IEnumerable

interface System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<'T>

member Head : 'T

member IsEmpty : bool

member Item : index:int -> 'T with get

member Length : int

member Tail : 'T list

static member Cons : head:'T * tail:'T list -> 'T list

static member Empty : 'T list

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Collections.List<_>

type: List<'T>

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: System.IComparable<List<'T>>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.Collections.IStructuralComparable

implements: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<'T>

implements: System.Collections.IEnumerable

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Collections.List.sum

Full name: Script.Testing.NumericLiteralZ.FromZero

Full name: Script.Testing.NumericLiteralZ.FromOne

Full name: Script.Testing.NumericLiteralZ.FromInt32

Full name: Script.Testing.NumericLiteralZ.FromInt64

type: int64

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int64>

implements: System.IEquatable<int64>

inherits: System.ValueType

Full name: Script.IntegerZ5Associations.IntegerZ5Numerics

type INumeric<'T> =

interface

abstract member Abs : 'T -> 'T

abstract member Add : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member Compare : 'T * 'T -> int

abstract member Equals : 'T * 'T -> bool

abstract member Multiply : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member Negate : 'T -> 'T

abstract member Parse : string * Globalization.NumberStyles * IFormatProvider -> 'T

abstract member Sign : 'T -> int

abstract member Subtract : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member ToString : 'T * string * IFormatProvider -> string

abstract member One : 'T

abstract member Zero : 'T

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Math.INumeric<_>

--------------------

INumeric

| Z5 of int

with

member ToInt32 : unit -> int

override ToString : unit -> string

static member Create : n:int -> IntegerZ5

static member One : IntegerZ5

static member Zero : IntegerZ5

static member ( + ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( * ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( - ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

end

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5

type: IntegerZ5

implements: IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: IComparable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

type: IntegerZ5

implements: IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: IComparable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

type: IntegerZ5

implements: IEquatable<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: IComparable<IntegerZ5>

implements: IComparable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

Object.Equals(obj: obj) : bool

abstract member INumeric.Equals : 'T * 'T -> bool

type: int

implements: IComparable

implements: IFormattable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<int>

implements: IEquatable<int>

inherits: ValueType

type: int

implements: IComparable

implements: IFormattable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<int>

implements: IEquatable<int>

inherits: ValueType

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.compare

class

static val PI : float

static val E : float

static member Abs : System.SByte -> System.SByte

static member Abs : int16 -> int16

static member Abs : int -> int

static member Abs : int64 -> int64

static member Abs : float32 -> float32

static member Abs : float -> float

static member Abs : decimal -> decimal

static member Acos : float -> float

static member Asin : float -> float

static member Atan : float -> float

static member Atan2 : float * float -> float

static member BigMul : int * int -> int64

static member Ceiling : decimal -> decimal

static member Ceiling : float -> float

static member Cos : float -> float

static member Cosh : float -> float

static member DivRem : int * int * int -> int

static member DivRem : int64 * int64 * int64 -> int64

static member Exp : float -> float

static member Floor : decimal -> decimal

static member Floor : float -> float

static member IEEERemainder : float * float -> float

static member Log : float -> float

static member Log : float * float -> float

static member Log10 : float -> float

static member Max : System.SByte * System.SByte -> System.SByte

static member Max : System.Byte * System.Byte -> System.Byte

static member Max : int16 * int16 -> int16

static member Max : uint16 * uint16 -> uint16

static member Max : int * int -> int

static member Max : uint32 * uint32 -> uint32

static member Max : int64 * int64 -> int64

static member Max : uint64 * uint64 -> uint64

static member Max : float32 * float32 -> float32

static member Max : float * float -> float

static member Max : decimal * decimal -> decimal

static member Min : System.SByte * System.SByte -> System.SByte

static member Min : System.Byte * System.Byte -> System.Byte

static member Min : int16 * int16 -> int16

static member Min : uint16 * uint16 -> uint16

static member Min : int * int -> int

static member Min : uint32 * uint32 -> uint32

static member Min : int64 * int64 -> int64

static member Min : uint64 * uint64 -> uint64

static member Min : float32 * float32 -> float32

static member Min : float * float -> float

static member Min : decimal * decimal -> decimal

static member Pow : float * float -> float

static member Round : float -> float

static member Round : decimal -> decimal

static member Round : float * int -> float

static member Round : float * System.MidpointRounding -> float

static member Round : decimal * int -> decimal

static member Round : decimal * System.MidpointRounding -> decimal

static member Round : float * int * System.MidpointRounding -> float

static member Round : decimal * int * System.MidpointRounding -> decimal

static member Sign : System.SByte -> int

static member Sign : int16 -> int

static member Sign : int -> int

static member Sign : int64 -> int

static member Sign : float32 -> int

static member Sign : float -> int

static member Sign : decimal -> int

static member Sin : float -> float

static member Sinh : float -> float

static member Sqrt : float -> float

static member Tan : float -> float

static member Tanh : float -> float

static member Truncate : decimal -> decimal

static member Truncate : float -> float

end

Full name: System.Math

Math.Sign(value: decimal) : int

Math.Sign(value: float) : int

Math.Sign(value: float32) : int

Math.Sign(value: int64) : int

Math.Sign(value: int) : int

Math.Sign(value: int16) : int

Math.Sign(value: sbyte) : int

Object.ToString() : string

abstract member INumeric.ToString : 'T * string * IFormatProvider -> string

type: int

implements: IComparable

implements: IFormattable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<int>

implements: IEquatable<int>

inherits: ValueType

type: string

implements: IComparable

implements: ICloneable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<string>

implements: seq<char>

implements: Collections.IEnumerable

implements: IEquatable<string>

type: string

implements: IComparable

implements: ICloneable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<string>

implements: seq<char>

implements: Collections.IEnumerable

implements: IEquatable<string>

type: Globalization.NumberStyles

inherits: Enum

inherits: ValueType

type Int32 =

struct

member CompareTo : obj -> int

member CompareTo : int -> int

member Equals : obj -> bool

member Equals : int -> bool

member GetHashCode : unit -> int

member GetTypeCode : unit -> System.TypeCode

member ToString : unit -> string

member ToString : string -> string

member ToString : System.IFormatProvider -> string

member ToString : string * System.IFormatProvider -> string

static val MaxValue : int

static val MinValue : int

static member Parse : string -> int

static member Parse : string * System.Globalization.NumberStyles -> int

static member Parse : string * System.IFormatProvider -> int

static member Parse : string * System.Globalization.NumberStyles * System.IFormatProvider -> int

static member TryParse : string * int -> bool

static member TryParse : string * System.Globalization.NumberStyles * System.IFormatProvider * int -> bool

end

Full name: System.Int32

type: Int32

implements: IComparable

implements: IFormattable

implements: IConvertible

implements: IComparable<int>

implements: IEquatable<int>

inherits: ValueType

--------------------

Int32()

Int32.Parse(s: string) : int

Int32.Parse(s: string, provider: IFormatProvider) : int

Int32.Parse(s: string, style: Globalization.NumberStyles) : int

Int32.Parse(s: string, style: Globalization.NumberStyles, provider: IFormatProvider) : int

Full name: Script.IntegerZ5Associations.Init

from Microsoft.FSharp.Math

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Math.GlobalAssociations.RegisterNumericAssociation

module Matrix

from Microsoft.FSharp.Math

--------------------

type Matrix<'T>

with

interface Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<'T>

interface Collections.IStructuralEquatable

interface Collections.IStructuralComparable

interface IComparable

member Column : index:int -> Vector<'T>

member Columns : start:int * length:int -> Matrix<'T>

member Copy : unit -> Matrix<'T>

override Equals : obj -> bool

member GetDiagonal : int -> Vector<'T>

override GetHashCode : unit -> int

member GetSlice : start1:int option * finish1:int option * start2:int option * finish2:int option -> Matrix<'T>

member PermuteColumns : permutation:(int -> int) -> Matrix<'T>

member PermuteRows : permutation:(int -> int) -> Matrix<'T>

member Region : starti:int * startj:int * lengthi:int * lengthj:int -> Matrix<'T>

member Row : index:int -> RowVector<'T>

member Rows : start:int * length:int -> Matrix<'T>

member SetSlice : start1:int option * finish1:int option * start2:int option * finish2:int option * source:Matrix<'T> -> unit

member ToArray2 : unit -> 'T [,]

member ToArray2D : unit -> 'T [,]

member ToRowVector : unit -> RowVector<'T>

member ToVector : unit -> Vector<'T>

member Diagonal : Vector<'T>

member Dimensions : int * int

member ElementOps : INumeric<'T>

member InternalDenseValues : 'T [,]

member InternalSparseColumnValues : int []

member InternalSparseRowOffsets : int []

member InternalSparseValues : 'T []

member IsDense : bool

member IsSparse : bool

member Item : int * int -> 'T with get

member NonZeroEntries : seq<int * int * 'T>

member Norm : float

member NumCols : int

member NumRows : int

member StructuredDisplayAsArray : obj

member Transpose : Matrix<'T>

member Item : int * int -> 'T with set

static member ( + ) : Matrix<'T> * Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( .* ) : Matrix<'T> * Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( * ) : 'T * Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( * ) : Matrix<'T> * 'T -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( * ) : Matrix<'T> * Vector<'T> -> Vector<'T>

static member ( * ) : Matrix<'T> * Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( - ) : Matrix<'T> * Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( ~- ) : Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

static member ( ~+ ) : Matrix<'T> -> Matrix<'T>

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Math.Matrix<_>

type: Matrix<'T>

implements: Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<'T>

implements: Collections.IEnumerable

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

implements: IComparable

from Microsoft.FSharp.Math.MatrixModule

from Script

Full name: Script.Script2.ys

type: Matrix<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.IEnumerable

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

implements: IComparable

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Math.MatrixModule.Generic.init

Full name: Script.Script2.xs

type: Matrix<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<IntegerZ5>

implements: Collections.IEnumerable

implements: Collections.IStructuralEquatable

implements: Collections.IStructuralComparable

implements: IComparable

type SealedAttribute =

class

inherit System.Attribute

new : unit -> SealedAttribute

new : value:bool -> SealedAttribute

member Value : bool

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.SealedAttribute

type: SealedAttribute

implements: System.Runtime.InteropServices._Attribute

inherits: System.Attribute

--------------------

new : unit -> SealedAttribute

--------------------

new : value:bool -> SealedAttribute

with

member ToInt32 : unit -> int

override ToString : unit -> string

static member Create : int -> IntegerZ5

static member One : IntegerZ5

static member Zero : IntegerZ5

static member ( + ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( * ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

static member ( - ) : IntegerZ5 * IntegerZ5 -> IntegerZ5

end

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.ToInt32

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.unit

type: unit

implements: System.IComparable

val int : 'T -> int (requires member op_Explicit)

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.int

--------------------

type int = int32

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int

type: int

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int>

implements: System.IEquatable<int>

inherits: System.ValueType

--------------------

type int<'Measure> = int

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int<_>

type: int<'Measure>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IComparable<int<'Measure>>

implements: System.IEquatable<int<'Measure>>

inherits: System.ValueType

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.ToString

val string : 'T -> string

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.string

--------------------

type string = System.String

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.string

type: string

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.ICloneable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<string>

implements: seq<char>

implements: System.Collections.IEnumerable

implements: System.IEquatable<string>

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.Create

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.One

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5.Zero

from FSharp.Numerics

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.NumericLiteralZ.FromZero

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.NumericLiteralZ.FromOne

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.NumericLiteralZ.FromInt32

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.NumericLiteralZ.FromInt64

val int64 : 'T -> int64 (requires member op_Explicit)

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.Operators.int64

--------------------

type int64 = System.Int64

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int64

type: int64

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IComparable<int64>

implements: System.IEquatable<int64>

inherits: System.ValueType

--------------------

type int64<'Measure> = int64

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Core.int64<_>

type: int64<'Measure>

implements: System.IComparable

implements: System.IConvertible

implements: System.IFormattable

implements: System.IComparable<int64<'Measure>>

implements: System.IEquatable<int64<'Measure>>

inherits: System.ValueType

from FSharp.Numerics

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5TopLevelOperations.z5

from FSharp.Numerics

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5Associations.IntegerZ5Numerics

type INumeric<'T> =

interface

abstract member Abs : 'T -> 'T

abstract member Add : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member Compare : 'T * 'T -> int

abstract member Equals : 'T * 'T -> bool

abstract member Multiply : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member Negate : 'T -> 'T

abstract member Parse : string * System.Globalization.NumberStyles * System.IFormatProvider -> 'T

abstract member Sign : 'T -> int

abstract member Subtract : 'T * 'T -> 'T

abstract member ToString : 'T * string * System.IFormatProvider -> string

abstract member One : 'T

abstract member Zero : 'T

end

Full name: Microsoft.FSharp.Math.INumeric<_>

--------------------

INumeric

Full name: FSharp.Numerics.IntegerZ5Associations.Init

**Published:** Thursday, 24 November 2011, 7:21 PM

**Author:** Tomas Petricek

**Typos:** Send me pull request!

**Tags:** functional, f#, math and numerics