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# Dynamic Lookup in F#

Many people view dynamic and statically-typed languages as two distinct groups (and this is often a reason for never-ending discussions). In this article, I'll try to show one interesting example, which demonstrates that these two groups are not in fact that distinct and that you can implement a common dynamic language feature in F#, which is undoubtedly statically-typed. The feature that I'm talking about is dynamic invoke using a symbolic representation of the member (this is something that can be done using symbols in Ruby, but I'll shortly explain what exactly I mean).

I intentionally wrote statically-typed and dynamic instead of dynamically-typed. In my understanding dynamic is a broader term while dynamically-typed and statically-typed are of course two distinct groups. On the other side dynamic refers to language features that are usually available in dynamically-typed languages, just because it is easy to support them in a nice way. This doesn't mean that having a dynamic feature in a statically-typed language would be impossible - it is just more difficult to implement it in a way that would be similarly elegant.

## Dynamic Lookup

This article is motivated by an interesting question [1], which was recently raised at hubFS. The question was, whether it is possible to read a value of a member of an F# record by using a name of that member. Indeed, this is something that you would expect to see in any dynamic language. As already mentioned, you can do similar things in Ruby using symbols (which are often explained as "something like a string", but more suitable exactly for this kind of situation) and in many other dynamic languages, you can do this just using strings. Basically, this means that you have some representation of a member (that can be for example given as an argument to a method) and which you can use to access the member value, but also for other manipulations with the member. In this article I'll use dynamic invoke as a name for this feature.

In statically-typed languages (such as F# or C#) this isn't directly supported, because the language wants to guarantee that it will not be possible to write a code that attempts to access a class member that doesn't exist. Clearly, this error can occur quite easily when using dynamic lookup in a dynamically-typed language. On .NET platform, we can of course use .NET reflection mechanism, but this solution alone isn't very elegant and the resulting code is not very safe (e.g. a method accepts MemberInfo as an argument, but there is no guarantee that the MemberInfo will represent a member from a specified class). Here, I'll show how to do similar thing in a much safer way in F#.

### What exactly do we want?

In this article, I'll look at slightly more interesting problem than the original question - instead of discussing how to get a value of the field, I'll show how to create a function that will return the value when it is given a value of the specified record type. This is practically more useful solution, because it allows us to write the code in a more efficient way, however I'll not discuss efficiency issues in this article. I'll shortly explain what this means, but let's first look at the F# record type that I'll use as an example:

type SampleRec = { Str : string; Num : int }


As you can see, the record type is very simplistic and serves just to show important aspects of the problem. The only important thing is that it has two fields of different types, because we'll later want to write a solution that will be as type-safe as possible.

Now, let's look what kind of code would we like to write using this dynamic lookup. We might for example want to create two functions - one for reading the string field and second for reading the number field. We don't know how to do this yet, so I'll just demonstrate the idea using pseudo-code. I'm using a non-existing construct RecordType.Field to denote some description of the field that can be used programmatically. Ruby users would surely call this symbol, .NET programmers can see it as a MemberInfo from System.Reflection, though I'll shortly show why using simply MemberInfo isn't a good solution here:

// Get a pair of functions for reading 'Str' and 'Num' fields
let readStrField = getValueReader SampleRec.Str
let readNumField = getValueReader SampleRec.Num

// Create a value of the record...
let rc = { Str = "Hello world!"; Num = 42 }

// Read 'Str' and 'Num' field using the dynamically created functions


### What is it good for?

Of course, the code presented here is just an example with no big practical usefulness, but it should demonstrate the idea how to implement a typical dynamic language feature in a statically typed language. As we'll see later, it is possible to implement it with a surprising static type safety. In a real-world application, you would use this approach for a same purpose as in dynamic languages. That is for meta-programming. This may be for example for inserting some additional run-time checking, adding logging features or for manipulating with the data represented by the record in some non-standard way (e.g. storing them in a database). This can be nicely used together with .NET attributes that can annotate the record type and specify additional properties of the values.

### When we don't need this?

If we didn't want to use this feature for meta-programming (e.g. together with .NET attributes) and simply wanted to wrap an access to a field of the record in a code that does some additional processing, then we can do this simply using F# functions:

let readNumField = getValueReader (fun (rc:SampleRec) -> rc.Num)


Let's say that we want to write getValueReader that adds logging to the code. This means that the returned function (readNumField) writes the value to a console window when it is called and the value of the record is accessed. In this case, the getValueReader function which adds additional processing to the given "field reader" (a function which reads the field) can be implemented in a following way:

let getValueReader f =
// Returns a function that takes the record as an argument..
(fun rc ->
// .. reads the value of the field using 'f' ..
let value = f rc
// .. prints the value on a console and returns it
printfn "%A" value
value)


This is very useful solution to a simpler kind of problem where meta-programming is not involved, but when you want to read the .NET attributes associated with the field and generate wrapping code depending on these attributes, simple functions are not powerful enough. This is because it isn't possible to inspect the internal structure of the function - it is just an arbitrary compiled code and for meta-programming we need to know something about the internal structure of the code. In case of record fields, we want to know what the name of the record field is as well as what .NET attributes are associated with it and so on.

## Statically-typed Dynamic Lookup

Now that I explained why you might be interested in writing something like that, let's get back to the original pseudo-code. Here is a shorter version of the code (which reads just the Str field of the record):

let readStrField = getValueReader SampleRec.Str


Before we turn this into a real code, let's look at the types. Dynamic lookup is a feature known from dynamically typed languages, but I'm now showing how to use it in F#, so types will be quite important for us. In particular, we want to know what is the type of the member description (or simply a symbol) written in a backquotes. Our initial idea may be that it is simply some representation of the member (let's call it for example DynamicMember). This would unfortunately mean that we don't know anything about type of the member represented by the symbol. We don't know the type of the F# record whose member is represented by the symbol (in this example SampleRec) and we also don't know the type of the record field (in this case string). This means that the getValueReader would have the following type signature:

getValueReader : DynamicMember -> (obj -> obj)


This isn't very satisfying, because we would have a function that takes an object and returns an object. This isn't really a code that we want to write in a statically-typed language, because we're losing all the checking guaranteed by the F# type checking. So, what we'd ideally want to is to include additional information in the type of the symbol. This can be done in F# by using type parameters. Our representation of symbol should have two type parameters that can carry a type of the F# record type (in which the field belongs) and the type of the field. Using this better version of symbol, we could write the following getValueReader function:

getValueReader : DynamicMember<'recordT, 'fieldT> -> ('recordT -> 'fieldT)


Using this representation of symbols (that represent the field of the record), we can get surprising type safety. You can see that the returned function (of type 'recordT -> 'fieldT) is fully typed. Its argument is a record, in which the symbol belongs and the result of the function has same type as the record field, so this is exactly the type that we want to get for a function that reads the field of the record! Using this representation, the type system can guarantee that we will use the dynamically constructed function returned by getValueReader only in the correct ways.

The question that remains to be answered is: How can we get this representation of symbols in F# language? There is no direct language support for this, but we can use F# quotations. The following output from the F# interactive console shows that we can use specifc quotation syntax (I'll explain it shortly) to get a value that contains all the necessary type information and we can use it to define the DynamicMember type which was used in the previous examples:

// Using F# quotations mechanism...
> let dynMem = <@@ (_ : SampleRec).Str @@>
val dynMem : Expr<SampleRec> -> Expr<string>

// Now we can define the DynamicMember type from the previous example:
> type DynamicMember<'a, 'b> = Expr<'a> -> Expr<'b>


Let's now look at the quoted expression that we used to create our symbol representation. The simplest form is <@@ _.Str @@>, but in the previous example, I added type annotation, because otherwise the F# compiler wouldn't know what is the type of the record that is used in the expression. The whole expression is enclosed in a quotation (<@@ ... @@> operator), which means that it will return some representation of the F# code enclosed in the operator. Quotations are somewhat similar to C# 3.0 expression trees and I already discussed them on this blog [2, 3]. The underscore symbol represents a hole in the quotation. A hole is simply something that can be filled in later, so if we create a hole, the returned quotation is actually a function. The function takes a quotation to be filled in the hole and returns a quotation with the hole replaced by the argument. Let me demonstrate this using a short script from the F# interactive:

// Import necessary F# namespaces for quotations
> #light;;
> open Microsoft.FSharp.Quotations;;
> open Microsoft.FSharp.Quotations.Typed;;

// Declare a quotation with a hole - returns a function
> let expr = <@@ 2 * _ @@>;;
val expr : (Expr<int> -> Expr<int>)

// Fill in a quotation of '2 + 3' into a hole
> let filled = expr <@@ 2 + 3 @@>;;
val filled : Expr<int>

// The result is a quoation of '2 * (3 + 4)'
> filled;;
val it : Expr<int> = <@@
(App (App op_Multiply (Int32 2))
(App (App op_Addition (Int32 3)) (Int32 4))) @@>


Using quotations for representing symbols is quite powerful trick. The quotation can be analyzed using F# reflection library, so we can access all the internals. Moreover, when we use typed quotations (<@@ ... @@> operator) with hole as in the previous example, we get all the necessary type information to write a function with a fully type safe signature.

### Implementation Internals

As a last thing in this article, I'll show you how to implement a code that simply returns a function that reads the value without any additional processing. In a real world, you would of course add some additional mechanism depending on the record field, but this isn't the point of this article. Let's first rewrite the example in pseudo-code from the beginning of the article into a real F# code that uses symbols in a way introduced in this article:

let readStrField = getValueReader <@@ (_ : SampleRec).Str @@>

let rc = { Str = "Hello world!"; Num = 42 }
printfn "Extracted: %s, %d" v1 v2


This is of course syntactically a bit more complicated, because F# doesn't support symbols directly as other languages, but it is still very concise code, which is useable in practice. The function getValueReader, which is used here takes a symbol represented using quotation as an argument, so it has the following type (the first version uses the type synonym declared earlier in the article and the second shows the internal representation using quotations):

getValueReader : (DynamicMember<'recordT, 'fieldT>) -> ('recordT -> 'fieldT)
getValueReader : (Expr<'recordT> -> Expr<'fieldT>)  -> ('recordT -> 'fieldT)


Let's now look at the implementation of the getValueReaderfunction:

#light

open System
open Microsoft.FSharp.Quotations
open Microsoft.FSharp.Quotations.Typed
open Microsoft.FSharp.Quotations.Raw

// Get the information about the record type
let rcTy = typeof<'recdT>
// Fill in the hole using 'dummy' quotation, so that
// we can examine its internal structure
let expr = prop (Typed.of_raw (MkHole rcTy))

// Match the quotation representing the symbol
match expr.Raw with
| RecdGet (ty, nm, expr) ->
// It represents reading of the F# record field..
// .. get a function that reads the record field using F# reflection
let rdr = Reflection.Value.GetRecordFieldReader (ty, nm)

// simply add type conversion to the correct types & return it
((box >> rdr >> unbox) : 'recdT -> 'fieldT)
| _ ->
// Quotation doesn't represent symbol - this is an error
failwith "Invalid expression - not reading record field!"


First, we need to get the internal representation of the quotation. Since the argument (quotation with a hole) is a function, we first need to apply it to some argument, so that we can access the code represented by the quotation. It is not important what will be inserted in place of the hole in the quotation, so we just create an untyped quotation that represents another hole and fill it in place of the original hole (this is just a trick that turns a function of type Expr<'a> -> Expr<'b> into a quotation of type Expr<'b>, but it doesn't change the internal value in any way).

Anyway, the rest of the code is more interesting - it first uses pattern matching and the particularly the pattern RecdGet to test whether the quotation represents a code that reads an F# record field. If yes, it uses F# reflection (GetRecordFieldReader) to get a function which reads the F# record field. This function isn't however strongly typed, so the type of rdr is obj -> obj. As a last step, we use the type information that we obtained from the statically-typed representation of the symbol to convert this function into a strongly typed function of type 'recdT -> 'fieldT.

In a real-world code that adds some functionality using meta-programming, you would do modifications in two parts of the code. First, you would use the structures obtained using pattern matching and F# reflection to discover more information about the record type. The most usual case that I can think of is reading .NET attributes associated with the record type or with the members of the record, however there are probably many other useful uses. Second thing that you would modify is a code that returns the function - here we simply obtained a function for reading the field, but the point of meta-programming is to do something more interesting here. The key idea however is that the code can return a statically-typed function, which makes the code that uses this form of dynamic meta-programming statically type-safe.

## Summary

In this article we've seen that a feature that is usually present in dynamic languages can be very nicely used in statically-typed F# as well. We've seen that using F# quotations, we can work with a representation of record field, which is in many ways similar to symbols known from Ruby (and similar features in other dynamic languages). Even though it is possible to achieve similar things by using strings using .NET reflection, the solution that I demonstrated here as one important advantage - the code that we write is statically type-safe, which makes the code more robust.

In general, you could implement similar feature in C# 3.0 using lambda expressions (treated as an expression tree - that is you'd have to specify that it has a type Expression<Func<...>>), however in C#, it much more depends on the particular problem that you want to solve. The code that would represent the symbol would be (SampleRec rc) => rc.Str and its type would be Expression<Func<SampleRec, string>>. Nevertheless, this is would be a topic for another article...

## References

Published: Wednesday, 4 June 2008, 1:50 AM
Author: Tomas Petricek
Typos: Send me a pull request!
Tags: meta-programming, f#